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ENCAP Technologies Revolutionizes Micro- and
Macro- Encapsulation of Phosphors

Flat Panel Screen Revolution

In addition to protecting metal substrates from corrosion, in the world of "thin-film technology and flat-panel screens," ENCAP has determined that by microencapsulating (enclosing tiny particles in capsules) tiny man-made phosphors (known as EELs and OLEDs) using CoForm, flat-panel manufacturers around the world will be able to make flat-panel TVs as large as the Empire State Building or as thin as a standard business card with resolution of 3,200 x 2,700 dpi. For years, this industry has aggressively searched for methods of protecting these phosphors from atmospheric conditions such as oxygen and moisture. With CoForm, ENCAP can now offer the flat-panel industry a viable and affordable solution. Consequently, flat-panel screens can get much bigger, with much better resolutions and, eventually, much lower costs.

Patented Flexibility and Impermeability

Encap is aware, of course, that many companies have investigated EL and OLED applications and have experimented with encapsulation of ELs and OLEDs using various types of wall materials. We are also aware of these companies' limited success in perfecting an impermeable encapsulation of ELs and OLEDs. But for electroluminescent phosphors to achieve or exceed the level of performance as LCD, LED, PDP, CRT, and other applications have achieved, they need to be environmentally stable under the various conditions required of these displays ? and with great flexibility and impermeability.

Until now, oxygen and moisture have plagued the flat panel display industry

EL, LED and OLED flat panel displays (FPDs) offer significantly similar benefits; nevertheless, difficulty in maintaining acceptable half-lives continues to plague the FPD industry. One complication that significantly reduces FPDs' useful life span is their sensitivity to oxygen and moisture. Pie Chart Showing the Cost of Corrrosion to the U.S. by Sector

Currently, there are many obstacles to the commercial production of FPDs using ELs, LEDs, and OLEDs. As you are aware, electrodes are essential components of ELs, LEDs, and OLEDs as they provide electrons (or positive holes) that eventually lead to light emission. Because it is more difficult to get the organic compounds used in OLEDs to conduct electrons than it is to make inorganic semiconductors (i.e., ELs) conduct electrons, the cathode is made of low work functions metals (highly electropositive ? thus giving up electrons easily), such as calcium, aluminum, or magnesium: silver (10:1). And while these materials have worked well, they are difficult to produce commercially because they are sensitive to oxygen and moisture.

The polymers and organic compounds used in the OLED layers are also sensitive to oxygen and moisture. The search for more stable compounds has been complicated by the reality that different colors are made with different compounds, creating another complication ? that of differing half-lives. The half-life of an OLED is the length of time it takes an OLED to become 50% less emissive. Full-color OLEDs have, at a minimum, three different colors of OLED materials ? red, green, and blue. These colors need to have compatibly long half-lives. For instance, what if the blue color lasted 10,000 hours but the green color lasted only 5,000 hours? After 5,000 hours, the screen might appear blurred without the green color, causing the grass of your favorite movie to appear as if it were under water.

ENCAP Has Solved These Problems

Photo of Nano-Technology Consider EL particles that are exposed to extreme conditions, such as 95% RH, 120 degrees F, for an extended period of time without emission degradation while under full power load, or consider ELs applied directly to microchips and rolled up or folded. When returned to their extended forms, the results are standard thin flat-panel displays or TVs. Consider this same application with its resolution applied over a 20 foot wide screen ? many times larger than a typical TV display.

This application is possible today using our Encapsulated Electroluminescent (EEL) phosphors. Our EEL phosphors have been independently tested at the government extreme test facility of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in Dayton, Ohio. Their test results are well documented. Their data shows that these "raw" microencapsulated phosphors withstood over 1000 hours of continuous illumination with no degradation in light output. Our own sample has been illuminated for over 96,000 hours without reaching its half-life.

Imagine the Possibilities

For the micro-encapsulation of EELs and OLEDs, many flat panel display engineers and researchers have only imagined the countless possibilities for the future of flat panel displays. These experts predict that in the distant future a computer user will be able to roll up his monitor and place it in his brief case ? or even in his pocket. Homeowners will be able to hang their television screens and monitors on walls just as they would an ultra-thin, lightweight picture frame. These potential applications and countless others have led corporations worldwide to allocate billions of dollars towards researching and developing methods to control, protect, and manipulate organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). able

Paper-Thin, Enormous, and Flexible

Imagine having a flat panel display as large as the Washington Monument with a resolution of 3,072 x 2,700 dpi -- millions of pixels beyond print clarity. Imagine removing this panel from the Washington Monument and wrapping the Pentagon with it without degradation in quality, output, integrity, safety, or indestructibility.

Imagine a paper-thin, flexible, lightweight, emissive, durable, and energy-efficient panel with uncharacteristically high refresh rates and light switching efficiency that is inexpensive to operate.

Imagine developing technology that would enable manufacturers to substantially reduce the retail cost of a flat panel display while maintaining unparalleled resolution and quality.

Making Yesterday's Visions Tomorrow's Realities

Because of Encap's CoFormcoating, these results can now be realized. With this core technology, commercial possibilities for making yesterday's visions tomorrow's realities are infinite.

Our "proof of concept" of this technology is simple. We have micro-encapsulated not only EELs but also water. Logic, then, would suggest that if we can micro-encapsulate and indefinitely contain water, then we can micro-encapsulate particles and coat objects and keep corrosive moisture/water out. Encap can apply OLEDs from its CoFormsolutions for either micro-encapsulation or screen coating, thus eliminating any concerns regarding moisture and oxygen degradation. These coatings can be applied by spraying, dipping, or brushing depending upon the manufacturer's equipment.